Phase I Study of [68Ga]Ga-Anti-CD206-sdAb for PET/CT Assessment of Protumorigenic Macrophage Presence in Solid Tumors (MMR Phase I)



Macrophages play an important role throughout the body. Antiinflammatory macrophages expressing the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206) are involved in disease development, ranging from oncology to atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-anti-CD206 single-domain antibody (sdAb) is a PET tracer targeting CD206. This first-in-human study, as its primary objective, evaluated the safety, biodistribution, and dosimetry of this tracer. The secondary objective was to assess its tumor uptake.


Seven patients with a solid tumor of at least 10 mm, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 0 or 1, and good renal and hepatic function were included. Safety was evaluated using clinical examination and blood sampling before and after injection. For biodistribution and dosimetry, PET/CT was performed at 11, 90, and 150 min after injection; organs showing tracer uptake were delineated, and dosimetry was evaluated. Blood samples were obtained at selected time points for blood clearance. Metabolites in blood and urine were assessed. 


Seven patients were injected with, on average, 191 MBq of [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-anti-CD206-sdAb. Only 1 transient adverse event of mild severity was considered to be possibly, although unlikely, related to the study drug (headache, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1). The blood clearance was fast, with less than 20% of the injected activity remaining after 80 min. There was uptake in the liver, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, and red bone marrow. The average effective dose from the radiopharmaceutical was 4.2 mSv for males and 5.2 mSv for females. No metabolites were detected. Preliminary data of tumor uptake in cancer lesions showed higher uptake in the 3 patients who subsequently progressed than in the 3 patients without progression. One patient could not be evaluated because of technical failure.


[68Ga]Ga-NOTA-anti-CD206-sdAb is safe and well tolerated. It shows rapid blood clearance and renal excretion, enabling high contrast-to-noise imaging at 90 min after injection. The radiation dose is comparable to that of routinely used PET tracers. These findings and the preliminary results in cancer patients warrant further investigation of this tracer in phase II clinical trials.



Gondry, OdradeXavier, CatarinaRaes, LaurensHeemskerk, JohannesDevoogdt, NickEveraert, HendrikBreckpot, KarineLecocq, QuentinDecoster, LoreFontaine, ChristelSchallier, DenisAspeslagh, SandrineVaneycken, IlseRaes, GeertVan Ginderachter, Jo A.Lahoutte, TonyCavaliers, VickyKeyaerts, Marleen

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